Major Dental Diseases and their Treatment


Unfortunately, every person has to deal with diseases of the teeth and gums from time to time. Even careful observance of oral hygiene and proper nutrition cannot be a complete guarantee that there will be no dental problems. The success of treatment in this case very often depends on the timeliness of the detection of pathology. It’s no secret that any disease is much easier to eliminate at the initial stage.

Today we explore what are major dental diseases, what causes them, what their symptoms look like and how they can be treated or even prevented from happening.

Causes of teeth and gum diseases

Regardless of the names of diseases of the teeth and gums, there are some common causes that most often lead to their development:

  • Insufficient oral hygiene;
  • Improper nutrition;
  • Deficiency of nutrients;
  • The presence of some serious common diseases;
  • Hormonal disruptions;
  • Bite defects;
  • Trauma;
  • Exposure to chemicals or contrasting temperatures;
  • Viral, bacterial, or fungal infection;
  • Lack of regular dental supervision.

Symptoms of teeth and gum diseases

The patient does not need to know the names of all dental diseases. It is much more important to remember the signs indicating the development of certain pathological conditions:

  • Discoloration of the enamel;
  • Increased sensitivity to temperature or chemical irritants;
  • Pain, itching, or burning;
  • Discoloration of the gums, swelling, bleeding;
  • The appearance of ulcers, abscesses on it;
  • Mobility of individual units of the dentition.

If you have one or more of these signs, a doctor’s consultation is required!

What dental diseases are there?

The following types of dental diseases can be distinguished:

Diseases of the enamel of the teeth. Enamel is a hard tissue that is the outer shell of the tooth. She is subject to the following negative changes:

  • Erasure of the hard layer;
  • Erosion of enamel (its decay);
  • Enamel hypoplasia (its underdevelopment);
  • Hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity);
  • Fluorosis (staining due to excess fluoride);
  • The appearance of pigmentation (discoloration of the enamel);
  • The formation of tartar or plaque called Calculus Bridge;
  • Wedge-shaped defects (loss of enamel in the area of ​​the dental neck in the form of a cone);
  • Necrosis (severe damage to the enamel caused by negative external influences), etc.

Diseases of the deep tissues of the teeth. In addition to enamel, there are the following types of dental tissue: dentin, pulp, and cement, which cover the neck and root. The danger for them is represented by:

  • Caries (the process of destruction under the influence of unfavorable external and internal factors);
  • Pulpitis (inflammation of the pulp);
  • Cyst (neoplasm in the apex of the root canal);
  • Periodontitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the root), etc.

In addition, dental health can be seriously damaged by diseases of the periodontal tissues:

  • Periodontal disease (systemic periodontal disease);
  • Periodontitis (inflammation of the periodontal tissues);
  • Gingivitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the gums);
  • Abscess (purulent inflammation);
  • Stomatitis (damage to the mucous membranes of the oral cavity), etc.

Methods for combating dental diseases

The choice of a specific technique depends on the type of dental disease, the degree of its spread, as well as on some other factors. Experts use:

  • Professional oral hygiene.
  • Remineralization of enamel.
  • Filling.
  • Prosthetics.
  • Surgery.

Prevention of dental problems

There is a saying that prevention is the best way to cure. Indeed, it is much easier to take measures to prevent diseases than to cure them, especially in advanced forms. That is why it is necessary:

  • Carry out oral hygiene twice a day;
  • Additionally, use rinses, and dental floss;
  • Undergo professional oral hygiene procedures twice a year;
  • Minimize the amount of sugar in the diet;
  • Regularly make preventive visits to the dentist.


We have learned that a vast variety of dental diseases exist, some are easily treatable and others are easily preventable by daily cleaning. But what is most important is regular dental hygiene at home and scheduled visits to the dentist, to prevent any kinds of diseases.